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17周年大視野精選
【高端限免】How the great British sandwich trade was derailed by Brexit, Covid and inflation
英國偉大的三明治產業是如何被英國退歐、新冠疫情和通脹破壞的

An industry that became a symbol of the changes in the economy over four decades now faces a perfect storm of problems | 這個在過去40年里成為經濟變化標誌的行業,現在面臨著一場完美的問題風暴。

Matt Raynor is stressed. The 53-year-old chair of Raynor Foods has recently approved a £1,200 signing-on bonus for sandwich makers; tonight he will work a six-hour picking and packing shift at the company』s Essex plant because of staff shortages.
馬特•雷諾(Matt Raynor)壓力很大。這位53歲的雷諾食品公司(Raynor Foods)主席最近批準為三明治製作者提供1200英鎊的簽約獎金;今晚,由於人員短缺,他將在公司的埃塞克斯工廠進行6小時的採摘和包裝工作。
「It』s been the worst two-and-a-half years of my life, with the disruption, the chaos,」 he says. 「We were fighting with Brexit and then Covid hit us.」
他說:「這是我人生中最糟糕的兩年半,混亂不堪。我們正在與英國脫歐戰鬥,然後新冠病毒襲擊了我們。」
Raynor』s family business, founded in 1988, makes 80,000 sandwiches a day for cafés, supermarkets, canteens and hospitals. Once a makeshift operation in his parents』 kitchen, its rise has mirrored the professionalisation of the UK』s sandwich industry over three decades.
雷諾的家族企業成立於1988年,每天為咖啡館、超市、食堂和醫院製作8萬個三明治。它曾經是他父母廚房裡的一個臨時操作,它的崛起反映了30年來英國三明治行業的專業化進程。
Since the 1980s, a large chunk of British sandwich making has moved from kitchens and sandwich bars to chilled, hyper-efficient factories, which produce a wide variety of packaged sandwiches — from the humdrum cheese and pickle to novelty flavours involving jackfruit and plant proteins. The industry』s rapid growth was powered by rising incomes, more women joining the workforce, cheap labour from Europe and workers chasing convenience.
自20世紀80年代以來,英國的一大部分三明治製作已經從廚房和三明治棒轉移到冷凍高效的工廠,這些工廠生產各種各樣的包裝三明治——從單調的奶酪和泡菜到新穎的口味,包括菠柚和植物蛋白。該行業的快速增長得益於收入的增加、更多女性加入勞動力大軍、來自歐洲的廉價勞動力以及追求便利的工人。
Now, after the pandemic dealt the industry the worst blow in its modern history, it is being reshaped by a combination of labour shortages, souring economic conditions and changes in British working habits.
如今,在新冠疫情大流行給該行業帶來了現代歷史上最嚴重的打擊後,該行業正被勞動力短缺、經濟狀況惡化和英國工作習慣的改變所重塑。
Matt Raynor sits at a desk and shows off a packaged chicken tikka sandwich

Chairman Matt Raynor』s parents founded Raynor Foods in 1988, and it now supplies 80,000 sandwiches a day

Raynor Foods
Raynor Foods sandwich makers wear protective gear as they work in a cold room

Staff at Raynor Foods work for long periods of time in cold rooms

Raynor Foods
董事長馬特•雷諾的父母在1988年創立了雷諾食品公司,現在該公司每天供應8萬個三明治

董事長馬特•雷諾的父母在1988年創立了雷諾食品公司,現在該公司每天供應8萬個三明治

雷諾食品公司
雷諾食品公司的員工要在寒冷的房間里長時間工作

雷諾食品公司的員工要在寒冷的房間里長時間工作

雷諾食品公司
Before Covid lockdowns temporarily shuttered offices in 2020, people in the UK were eating £8bn worth of sandwiches a year. Kevin Moore, deputy chief executive of the UK』s largest sandwich maker Greencore, says packaged sandwiches had reached a so-called penetration of 84 per cent — meaning 84 out of 100 people bought at least one a year, a rate exceeded only by a few staples like milk and coffee, according to Kantar, a data analytics company.
2020年,新冠疫情導致辦公室暫時關閉,在此之前,英國人每年吃掉價值80億英鎊的三明治。英國最大三明治製造商Greencore的副首席執行官凱文•摩爾(Kevin Moore)表示,包裝三明治的所謂滲透率達到了84%——數據分析公司凱度(Kantar)的數據顯示,這意味著每100個人中就有84人每年至少購買一份,只有牛奶和咖啡等幾種主食的銷量超過了這一比例。
But the rise of homeworking during the pandemic seems to have driven lasting changes in the routines of the industry』s most important customers: office workers. The British Sandwich & Food to Go Association estimates that, two years on, business is still 20 per cent below pre-pandemic levels.
但疫情期間在家辦公的興起,似乎推動了該行業最重要客戶——辦公室職員——日常生活的持久變化。英國三明治與食品協會(British Sandwich & Food to Go Association)估計,兩年過去了,業務仍比疫情前水平低20%。
At the same time, the sector is facing disruption to its supply of cheap labour and ingredients. Brexit closed the UK』s doors to free movement of EU citizens, meaning production workers are scarce and their wages are rapidly rising. Intense inflationary pressure is adding to the unpredictability of purchasing and supply chain hold-ups since Russia invaded Ukraine this year.
與此同時,該行業的廉價勞動力和原料供應也面臨中斷。英國退歐關閉了歐盟公民自由流動的大門,這意味著生產工人稀缺,他們的工資正在迅速上漲。自今年俄羅斯入侵烏克蘭以來,巨大的通脹壓力加大了採購和供應鏈中斷的不可預測性。
「I』m concerned for the whole industry,」 says Raynor.
「我為整個行業感到擔憂,」雷諾說。

Just in time

及時送到

While the sandwich is not about to vanish from British culinary life, the industry fears its pre-pandemic golden age, marked by low cost and seemingly infinite variety, may never return.
雖然三明治不會從英國的烹飪生活中消失,但該行業擔心,大流行前的黃金時代可能永遠不會回來了,其特點是成本低,種類似乎無窮無盡。
When Raynor』s parents moved from running a restaurant to making sandwiches 34 years ago 「there was no sandwich industry」, he recalls. His father met the buyer for a group of Co-Op stores at a networking event, who said they needed a sandwich supplier. The kitchen operation began.
雷諾回憶說,34年前,當他的父母從經營一家餐廳轉到製作三明治時,「當時還沒有三明治行業」。他的父親在一次社交活動上遇到了一個Co-Op門店群的買家,買家說他們需要一個三明治供應商。廚房的運作開始了。
「It took us nine and a half hours to make 350 sandwiches . . . we had to grill the bacon and boil the eggs, do everything from scratch,」 Raynor says. 「They were beautiful sandwiches,」 he adds wistfully.
「我們花了九個半小時做了350個三明治……我們不得不烤熏肉、煮雞蛋,一切從零開始,」雷諾說。「它們是很漂亮的三明治,」他渴望地補充道。
Today, making sandwiches is a precision business requiring frenetic backstage activity. At Pret A Manger, the sandwich chain that has become synonymous with London commuting life over more than three decades, sandwich-making starts in-store at 5am each day. Elsewhere, production lines work frantically during evenings and nights.
如今,做三明治是一項精密的工作,需要瘋狂的後台活動。在30多年來已成為倫敦通勤生活代名詞的三明治連鎖店Pret A Manger,每天早上5點開始製作三明治。在其他地方,生產線在晚上和深夜瘋狂地工作。
At the south London plant of Simply Lunch, a manufacturer with 290 staff, making a bacon, lettuce and tomato sandwich requires 17 stations on the production line. The orders — between 400,000 and 450,000 of them each week — come in just 48 hours before the sandwiches need to be on shelves.
在倫敦南部的Simply Lunch工廠,一家擁有290名員工的製造商,製作一個培根、生菜和番茄三明治需要在生產線上設置17個站點。每周有400,000到450,000份訂單,這些訂單在三明治需要上架的48小時前就已經到貨。
Workers in protective gear operate in rooms where the temperature hovers at around 2C, processing 25,000 loaves of bread a week and two tonnes of tomatoes. Fifteen people are dedicated to food safety. The facility operates 20 hours a day, with the remaining four spent on cleaning. Hermann Dokoui, a shift manager at the plant, says the 9pm to 7am night shift is the hardest 「because you are always walking around」, preparing for deliveries to leave the factory.
穿著防護服的工人在溫度徘徊在2℃左右的房間里操作,每周加工25,000個麵包和2噸番茄。有15人專門負責食品安全。該設施每天工作20小時,其餘4小時用於清潔。該廠的輪班經理赫爾曼-多庫伊(Hermann Dokoui)說,晚上9點到早上7點的夜班是最辛苦的,「因為你總是在走來走去」,為交貨離廠做準備。
The need for freshness means sandwiches cannot be made overseas. 「The sandwich industry has transformed short shelf-life, chilled distribution in the UK dramatically,」 says Jim Winship, director at the BSA. 「You have production plus two days or three at most. That means they』ve got to get from the factory, which might be in the Midlands, to the retail shop, which might be in Inverness somewhere, and sell it within two days.」 
對新鮮的需求意味著三明治不能在海外製作。BSA董事吉姆•溫希普(Jim Winship)表示:「三明治行業大幅改變了英國保質期短、冷藏配送的模式。你最多有2到3天的製作時間。這意味著他們必須從位於中部的工廠,到位於因弗內斯某處的零售商店,並在兩天內售出。」
Simply Lunch』s lettuce leaves are picked in Kent in the small hours, reach the factory at 9am, pass through a sanitising chemical solution, spin in a giant salad spinner and are inside sandwiches from noon. Ultrasonic blades cut the bread. Finished sandwiches are weighed to check the protein allocation. Samples go to laboratories daily to check for bacterial contamination.
Simply Lunch的生菜葉子是凌晨在肯特郡採摘的,早上9點到達工廠,經過消毒化學溶液,在一個巨大的沙拉旋轉器中旋轉,然後放在中午的三明治里。超聲波刀片切麵包。完成的三明治會被稱重以檢查蛋白質的分配。樣本每天被送到實驗室檢查細菌污染情況。
When a production line changes from one product to another, the procedure resembles a 「Formula One pit stop」, says Sam Page, Simply Lunch managing director. 「There is a lot of technical knowledge that goes into a sandwich.」
當生產線從一種產品轉換到另一種產品時,程序類似於「一級方程式賽車的進站」,Simply Lunch的總經理薩姆•佩奇(Sam Page)說。「一個三明治里有很多技術知識」。
That precision has been tested by a dwindling supply of labour since Brexit. Page』s factory has around 40 vacancies. Another headache is the sheer pace of inflation. This year egg prices have risen by 30 per cent, mayonnaise by 80 per cent as vegetable oil prices spiked, and bread prices by 25 per cent, says Adam Newland, managing director at Raynor Foods. Now the headache is cheese, where prices have risen 76 per cent in a year to £6 a kilo.
自英國退歐以來,勞動力供應不斷減少,這一精確度受到了考驗。佩奇的工廠大約有40個職位空缺。另一個令人頭疼的問題是通貨膨脹的速度。雷諾食品董事總經理亞當•紐蘭(Adam Newland)表示,今年以來,雞蛋價格上漲了30%,隨著植物油價格的飆升,蛋黃醬價格上漲了80%,麵包價格上漲了25%。現在讓人頭疼的是奶酪,其價格在一年內上漲了76%,達到每公斤6英鎊。
Sam Page, managing director of Simply Lunch, centre, and his brothers Jack and William. The family business was launched by their father in 1979
中間的Simply Lunch公司總經理薩姆•佩奇和他的兄弟傑克和威廉。這個家族企業是由他們的父親在1979年創立的。
「There are forecasts that it will be going for £8 a kilo by year-end. Cheese is still incredibly volatile,」 Newland said. Despite some commodity prices going into reverse, 「nothing has eased for us,」 he says.
「有預測稱,到今年年底,它的價格將達到每公斤8英鎊。奶酪仍然非常不穩定,」紐蘭說。他表示,儘管一些大宗商品價格出現逆轉,但「對我們來說,一切都沒有緩解。」
Ingredient shortages caused by supply chain disruption are forcing manufacturers to adapt constantly, says Winship. Most have cut their ranges to streamline production. Greencore reduced its number of products by one-quarter after the onset of Covid-19 and it remains about a fifth below pre-pandemic levels. Simply Lunch cut its offering from 150 items to 100.
溫希普說,供應鏈中斷導致的原料短缺迫使製造商不斷適應。大多數公司都削減了生產範圍以提高生產效率。Greencore在新冠疫情爆發後將產品數量減少了四分之一,目前仍比大流行前水平低約五分之一。Simply Lunch將供應的商品從150種減少到100種。
Government support enabled most sandwich makers to survive the pandemic, but Southall-based Adelie Foods entered administration in 2020 with the loss of 2,000 jobs. Now Winship estimates the industry is operating at about 80 per cent of pre-pandemic sales, or £6.4bn a year.
政府的支持使大多數三明治製造商在大流行中倖存下來,但總部位於Southall的Adelie食品公司在2020年進入破產管理,失去了2000個工作崗位。現在,溫希普估計,該行業的銷售額約為大流行前的80%,即每年64億英鎊。
He had hoped for a full bounceback in 2022, but after the onset of rapid inflation this year, he is not so sure.
他曾希望在2022年實現全面反彈,但在今年開始出現快速通貨膨脹後,他就不那麼確定了。

Follow the skyscraper

跟著摩天大樓走

The success of the British sandwich industry over the past four decades belies both the precariousness of its business model and the intensity of the competition between manufacturers. Margins are inevitably tight when speed and convenience are king.
英國三明治行業在過去40年里的成功掩蓋了其商業模式的不穩定性和製造商之間競爭的激烈程度。當速度和便利性為王時,利潤空間不可避免地緊張。
Marks and Spencer introduced its first packaged sandwich — salmon and tomato — in 1980. Pret A Manger was founded in its current form in 1986. Greencore emerged from the 1991 privatisation of Irish Sugar.
瑪莎百貨在1980年推出了第一款包裝三明治——三文魚加番茄。Pret A Manger成立於1986年。Greencore誕生於1991年愛爾蘭糖業(Irish Sugar)的私有化。
The broader national climate favoured sandwiches. British prime minister Margaret Thatcher』s labour reforms of the 1980s provided sandwich makers with 「relatively low-paid workers」, says David Edgerton, professor of modern British history at King's College London. The white-collar ethos became one of 「people working harder, with not much time」.
更廣泛的國家氣候有利於三明治的發展。英國首相瑪格麗特-撒切爾(Margaret Thatcher)在20世紀80年代的勞工改革為三明治製造商提供了「相對低薪的工人」,倫敦國王學院的英國現代史教授大衛•埃傑頓(David Edgerton)說。白領階層的風氣變成了「人們更努力地工作,卻沒有多少時間」。
As food writer Bee Wilson notes in her book Sandwich: A Global History: 「No dish has a stronger association with the world of work.」 For employees without a subsidised workplace canteen, sandwiches became a cheap, efficient way of outsourcing lunch. 「Instead of communal eating, it [became] a solitary activity,」 says Edgerton.  
正如美食作家比·威爾遜(Bee Wilson)在她的《三明治:全球歷史》(Sandwich: A Global History)一書中所指出的那樣:「沒有一道菜比三明治與工作世界的聯繫更緊密了。」對於沒有補貼的工作場所食堂的員工來說,三明治成了一種廉價、高效的外包午餐方式。埃傑頓說:「這不再是一起吃飯,而是變成了一項單獨的活動。」
Today, in real terms, average household disposable income is double that of 1980, says Jon Boys, economist at the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. 「Extra income means more stuff. Tasks like making sandwiches have switched from home production to the market economy — as have many other things over the years: childcare, cleaning, shopping.」
英國特許人事與發展協會(Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development)經濟學家博伊斯(Jon Boys)說,按實際價值計算,如今家庭平均可支配收入是1980年的兩倍。「額外的收入意味著更多的東西。像做三明治這樣的工作已經從家庭生產轉向了市場經濟——正如多年來許多其他事情一樣:育兒、清潔、購物。」
Many vacancies in the food industry were filled by eastern Europeans who were willing to work long hours for lower pay but that has changed since Brexit
食品行業的許多職位空缺由東歐人填補,他們願意以較低的工資長時間工作,但自英國退歐以來,這種情況發生了變化
Oriel Sullivan, professor of sociology of gender at University College London, says the 1980s were when 「female full-time employment rates really started to rise rapidly. There were fewer women at home to make sandwiches for others, and they were too busy to make them for themselves.」
倫敦大學學院(University College London)性別社會學教授奧里爾·沙利文(Oriel Sullivan)表示,上世紀80年代是「女性全職就業率真正開始迅速上升的時期」。在家給別人做三明治的婦女很少,她們太忙了,沒有時間給自己做。」
The ready-made sandwich became emblematic of the era』s economic shifts. Boys says: 「What are you buying? A sandwich, yes, but really you are buying time, convenience, consistency and perhaps variety too.」 The brand that summed up that change was Pret A Manger, whose previous chief executive』s motto was to 「follow the skyscraper」.
現成的三明治成為那個時代經濟轉變的象徵。博伊斯說:「你在買什麼?一個三明治,是的,但實際上你買的是時間、方便、一致性,也許還有多樣性。」最能體現這一變化的品牌是Pret A Manger,其前任首席執行官的座右銘是「追隨摩天大樓」。
With few barriers to entry for manufacturers, the market soon became intensely competitive. 「Retailers have moved their contracts around and kept margins low,」 says Andy Searle, managing director at consultancy AlixPartners.
由於製造商進入市場的障礙很少,市場競爭很快就變得非常激烈。諮詢公司艾睿鉑(AlixPartners)董事總經理安迪•塞爾(Andy Searle)表示:「零售商調整了合同,將利潤率保持在較低水平。」
A ready supply of cheap and pliable labour enabled that strategy. After the EU expanded in 2004, many vacancies were filled by eastern Europeans who were willing to work long hours for lower pay. By 2017, EU nationals accounted for more than one-third of the food industry workforce, according to the Food and Drink Federation. They were disproportionately working on production lines, say industry executives.
現成的廉價和靈活的勞動力供應使這一戰略成為可能。2004年歐盟擴張後,許多職位空缺由東歐人填補,這些人願意以較低的工資長時間工作。根據食品和飲料聯合會(food and Drink Federation)的數據,到2017年,歐盟國民占食品行業勞動力的三分之一以上。行業高管表示,他們在生產線上工作的比例非常高。
When it came, Brexit was accompanied by an offer of long-term settlement for existing European residents. But a points-based immigration regime introduced from 2021 stopped the free flow of low-paid labour, while the Covid pandemic prompted an estimated 1.3m overseas workers to head home.
在脫歐的同時,歐盟還為現有歐洲居民提供了長期解決方案。但從2021年開始實施的積分移民制度阻止了低薪勞動力的自由流動,而新冠疫情則促使約130萬海外工人回國。
That led to an intensive recruitment drive. Pret, Greggs and other takeaway chains have suffered staff shortages after making redundancies or furloughing workers during lockdowns. Pret, which increased headcount by 28 per cent between January and April this year, has raised wages twice since September. Sandwich executives say Amazon warehouses can easily poach their employees.
這導致了密集的招聘活動。Pret、Greggs和其他外賣連鎖店在封鎖期間裁員或讓員工休假後,遭遇了員工短缺的問題。今年1月至4月,Pret將員工人數增加了28%,自去年9月以來已兩次加薪。三明治公司的高管表示,亞馬遜的倉庫可以很容易地挖走他們的員工。
With post-Brexit immigration policy shaped around a 「high-wage economy」, ministers have pushed food manufacturers to automate rather than employ low-paid workers. But it is a major challenge to replace the dexterity of human fingers when handling irregular ingredients such as lettuce.
由於英國退歐後的移民政策圍繞著「高工資經濟」形成,大臣們已敦促食品製造商實現自動化,而不是僱傭低收入工人。但在處理生菜等不規則食材時,如何取代人類手指的靈活性是一個重大挑戰。
Simply Lunch is investing £25,000 in a 「depositor」 to drop egg mayonnaise or a similar mix on to bread. Another robot drops the final slice of bread to 「lid」 a sandwich. Greencore already uses both devices, along with a butter spreader.
Simply Lunch公司正在投資25,000英鎊購買一個「存放器」,將雞蛋蛋黃醬或類似的混合物放入麵包中。另一個機器人將最後一片麵包丟入三明治的「蓋子」中。Greencore公司已經使用了這兩個設備,以及一個黃油塗抹器。
Raynor Foods has a robotics programme with Dutch group IRS, but it has yet to juggle multiple ingredients — a task Raynor compares with Tetris, the video game. His company has been battling vacancies and staff turnover despite raising entry-level wages by 15 per cent in a year and ramping up bonuses. Of one group of 17 new recruits, four dropped out within two days.
雷諾食品公司與荷蘭IRS集團合作開展了一項機器人計劃,但它還沒有處理多種成分的能力--雷諾將這項任務與視頻遊戲俄羅斯方塊相提並論。他的公司一直在與職位空缺和員工流失作鬥爭,儘管在一年內將初級工資提高了15%並增加了獎金。在一組17名新員工中,有4人在兩天內退出了。
「We are asking people to do a physical job in a cold room without any windows, for long periods of time,」 he says, adding wryly: 「The glamour of the industry is not at the coal face.」 
「我們讓人們長時間在沒有窗戶的寒冷房間里做體力活,」他說,並苦笑著補充道:「這個行業的魅力不在於採煤面。」

End of the cheap food era

廉價食品時代的結束

The greater challenge may be getting consumers to return to their pre-pandemic lunching habits. Food perks are one way to entice staff back into the office but, for many, a sandwich will not cut it, says Julie Ennis, chief executive of UK and Ireland corporate services at caterer Sodexo: 「People are looking for something different . . . People aren』t coming into the office for a ham sandwich,」 she says.
更大的挑戰可能是讓消費者回到疫情前的午餐習慣。餐飲企業索迪斯(Sodexo)英國和愛爾蘭企業服務首席執行官朱莉•恩尼斯(Julie Ennis)表示,食物補貼是吸引員工重返辦公室的一種方式,但對許多人來說,一塊三明治是不夠的:「人們在尋找不同的東西……人們來辦公室可不是為了吃火腿三明治,」她說。
Food delivery apps have increased consumers』 expectations of choice. Matt Ephgrave, managing director at Just Eat for Business, says the past six months have prompted 「unprecedented demand」 for food deliveries to offices. 「We』re seeing a massive shift towards healthy options — Japanese, Poke bowls and salads,」 he says.
外賣應用增加了消費者對選擇的期望。Just Eat for Business董事總經理馬特•埃夫格雷夫(Matt Ephgrave)表示,過去6個月,對辦公室食品配送的需求「前所未有」。他說:「我們看到人們對健康選擇的巨大轉變——日本菜、Poke碗和沙拉。」
And in recent months, some of the major economic trends that helped fuel the sandwich boom have gone into reverse. The Bank of England has warned of the worst squeeze on disposable incomes in 30 years. The resulting cost of living crisis is expected to have far-reaching effects on British lifestyles.
最近幾個月,推動三明治熱潮的一些主要經濟趨勢出現了逆轉。英國央行警告稱,可支配收入將面臨30年來最嚴重的緊縮。由此產生的生活成本危機預計將對英國人的生活方式產生深遠影響。
Some manufacturers are handling the price pressure by quietly cutting portion sizes, says Andrew Walker, former chief executive of sandwich chain Eat. Raynor has pushed up prices for its customers by as much as a quarter.
三明治連鎖店Eat前首席執行官安德魯•沃克(Andrew Walker)表示,一些製造商正通過悄悄削減份量來應對價格壓力。雷諾(Raynor)已將其客戶的產品價格提高了四分之一。
「The evidence is that the era of cheap food is over,」 says Tim Lang, emeritus professor of food policy at City University. For Lang, sandwich manufacture is a carbon-intensive industry, over-reliant on cheap labour. 「You』ve got a plastic-wrapped sandwich made overnight in a factory up the A1 and driven down in cold store, oil-guzzling trucks to deliver to put in a BP M&S garage. Is it sensible? It』s bonkers,」 he says.
城市大學(City University)食品政策榮譽教授蒂姆•朗(Tim Lang)表示:「證據表明,廉價食品的時代已經結束。」在朗看來,三明治製造是一個碳密集型產業,過度依賴廉價勞動力。「你可以在A1區的工廠里連夜製作一個塑料包裝的三明治,然後用耗油量大的卡車把它送到英國石油公司瑪莎百貨的車庫。這是明智的嗎?這太瘋狂了,」他說。
Walker believes the heyday of the traditional triangle sandwich is over, but for a different reason. He argues it will decline as consumers choose salads, wraps and other options that are seen as healthier.
沃克認為,傳統三角三明治的鼎盛時期已經結束,但原因不同。他認為,隨著消費者選擇沙拉、卷餅和其他被認為更健康的食品,這一數字將會下降。
Others are more optimistic. 「The core of this nation is run by . . . blue-collar workers in manufacturing. They need a sandwich on the go, they don』t have time to have dinner and they love what they love,」 says Dan Silverston, managing director of The Soho Sandwich Co.
其他人則更為樂觀。」這個國家的核心是由......製造業的藍領工人經營的。他們需要隨時隨地的三明治,他們沒有時間吃晚飯,他們喜歡他們喜歡的東西,"Soho Sandwich公司的總經理丹·西爾弗斯頓(Dan Silverston)說。
Some remote workers may be convinced to buy their packaged sandwiches close to home. Sales in Pret』s suburban London shops are now 18 per cent higher than pre-Covid levels while City stores』 sales are still around 17 per cent lower, Bloomberg data show. The motto of its current chief executive, Pano Christou, is 「take Pret to the people」. But, Xiaowei Xu, senior research economist at the Institute for Fiscal Studies, expects this trend will make sandwiches more expensive 「because places where people live are less dense than places where they work」.
一些遠程工作者可能會被說服在離家近的地方購買包裝好的三明治。彭博社的數據顯示,Pret倫敦郊區商店的銷售額現在比新冠疫情前高出18%,而金融城商店的銷售額仍低17%左右。其現任首席執行官帕諾·克里斯托的座右銘是「把Pret帶給人民」。但財政研究所(Institute for Fiscal Studies)高級經濟學家徐曉偉預計,這一趨勢將使三明治變得更貴,「因為人們生活的地方比他們工作的地方密度小」。
As for Raynor, he argues the sandwich will be 「dragged kicking and screaming back to pre-Covid levels of variety, but that will be massively stymied by inflation . . . It will take time and customers will have to accept that the price for a sandwich will not be what it was two years ago.
至於雷諾,他認為三明治的多樣性將「生龍活虎地回到新冠病毒爆發前的水平,但這將受到通脹的極大阻礙……這將需要時間,顧客將不得不接受一個事實,即三明治的價格將不再是兩年前的水平。」
「Nothing else is going to stand still,」 he says, 「so why would the sandwich?」
他說:「沒有什麼東西會停滯不前,那為什麼三明治會呢?」
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