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美國中東政策

Trump upends decades of policy on Israel
特朗普承認耶路撒冷為以色列首都

美國總統不顧世界各地盟友的警告,推翻了美國數十年來的外交政策。他將這一決定描繪為對現實不可避免的承認。

In deciding to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and trigger plans to move the US embassy there from Tel Aviv, President Donald Trump has defied warnings from allies across the world and overturned decades of US foreign policy.

美國總統唐納德•特朗普(Donald Trump)不顧世界各地盟友的警告,決定承認耶路撒冷為以色列首都,並啟動將美國大使館從特拉維夫遷往耶路撒冷的計劃。此舉推翻了美國數十年來的外交政策。

The US president said he would take the landmark step yesterday afternoon, describing it as a long overdue move that would advance the peace process and declaring the US would support a two-state solution for the Palestinians and Israelis should the sides embrace such an outcome.

美國總統表示,他將在周三下午邁出具有里程碑意義的這一步。他稱這是一個早就應該作出的有助於推進和平進程的舉動,並宣布如果巴勒斯坦和以色列雙方都接受的話,美國將支持一個「兩國方案」。

The decision allows Mr Trump to demonstrate resolve on a hugely symbolic issue and redeem a pledge to supporters and donors that he first made during the presidential campaign. The president dismayed some backers in June when he continued with previous practice by signing a six-month waiver to a congressional requirement demanding that the US embassy be moved.

這個決定使特朗普得以在一個具有巨大象徵意義的問題上展現出決心,並兌現他在競選總統期間對支持者和捐贈者作出的承諾。美國總統在6月份讓一些支持者感到失望,當時他延續白宮的一貫做法,針對國會對搬遷美國大使館的要求籤署了為期六個月的臨時中止令。

「It is clear he doesn』t like exercising these waivers, and he doesn』t like to look like other presidents; he is showing he does it his way,」 said Dennis Ross, a former Middle East adviser at the White House who is now at the Washington Institute.

「顯然,他不喜歡行使總統的法律條款臨時中止權,他不喜歡看起來像是其他總統;他正在展示他以自己的方式行事,」白宮前中東顧問、如今任職於華盛頓近東政策研究所(Washington Institute for Near East Policy)的丹尼斯•羅斯(Dennis Ross)表示。

Mr Trump portrayed the decision as an inevitable recognition of reality, and advisers dismissed warnings from the Palestinians and allies including Jordan that it could derail the peace talks. The US was not pre-empting future discussions over how Jerusalem could ultimately be divided up, and nor was it questioning ultra-sensitive areas including the area known as the Temple Mount to Jews and the Haram al-Sharif to Muslims, they insisted.

特朗普將這一決定描繪為對現實不可避免的承認,同時他的顧問們對巴勒斯坦以及盟友(包括約旦)有關此舉可能破壞和談的警告不以為然。他們堅稱,美國並沒有阻止各方在未來就耶路撒冷最終如何分割的問題進行討論,美方也沒有質疑一些極其敏感的地區,包括被猶太人稱為「聖殿山」(Temple Mount)、被穆斯林稱為「謝里夫聖地」(Haram al-Sharif)的地區。

Moving the embassy could take years to achieve, and the president will meanwhile once again sign another six-month waiver under a congressional law requiring it to be relocated. The move would help the peace process by demonstrating the president』s credibility to the world, said one White House official. 「It rectifies this historic wrong. He』s not a man who makes excuses.」

搬遷大使館計劃可能需要幾年時間才能實現,與此同時美國總統將再度針對要求搬遷美國大使館的國會法律,簽署又一個六個月臨時中止令。一名白宮官員表示,此舉將通過向世界展示總統的可信度來推動和平進程。「它糾正了這個歷史錯誤。他不是找借口的人。」

Leaders around the world — among them Mahmoud Abbas, the president of the Palestinian Authority, King Abdullah of Jordan, and Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan — warned the move would have dangerous consequences. The Saudi state news agency quoted an unnamed foreign ministry official as saying the recognition will have 「serious implications and will be provocative to all Muslims」.

世界各地的領導人——包括巴勒斯坦民族權力機構主席馬哈茂德•阿巴斯(Mahmoud Abbas)、約旦國王阿卜杜拉二世(King Abdullah)和土耳其總統雷傑普•塔伊普•埃爾多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)——紛紛警告此舉將會帶來危險後果。沙特阿拉伯的國家通訊社援引一名不願透露姓名的外交部官員的話稱,承認耶路撒冷為以色列首都將產生「嚴重潛在影響,並且對所有穆斯林都具有挑釁性」。

The status of the divided city is hugely delicate and its fate is one of the thorniest issues of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. Israel regards Jerusalem as its undivided capital and claims sovereignty over the whole city. But the international community views East Jerusalem as occupied land and the Palestinians consider it their future capital.

這個分裂城市的地位極為微妙,其命運是以巴和平進程中最棘手的問題之一。以色列認為耶路撒冷是其不可分割的首都,並主張其對整個城市擁有主權。但國際社會認為東耶路撒冷是被佔領的土地,巴勒斯坦人認為東耶路撒冷是他們未來的首都。

No nation has an embassy in Jerusalem. The international community』s position has long been that Jerusalem』s status should be determined by peace talks.

目前沒有一個國家在耶路撒冷設使館。國際社會的立場一直是,耶路撒冷的地位應該由和談來決定。

While the decision was commended by pro-Israel lobby groups including the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, or AIPAC, some analysts predicted it would put parties including Mr Abbas on the defensive while emboldening extremist groups.

儘管特朗普的決定獲得了美國以色列公共事務委員會(AIPAC)等親以色列遊說團體的讚賞,但一些分析人士預計,此舉將使阿巴斯等方面陷於被動,同時讓極端主義團體增長士氣。

Hassan Abu Hanieh, a Jordanian security analyst, said it could enable a recruitment bonanza for jihadi groups, who will use the move as a symbol of aggression against Muslims.

約旦安全分析師哈桑•阿布•哈尼(Hassan Abu Hanieh)表示,此舉可能給了聖戰組織進行招募的大好機會,他們將把此舉說成是欺壓穆斯林的標誌。

Mr Trump has promised to broker what he has described as the 「ultimate」 deal to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Trump advisers, led by his son-in-law Jared Kushner, have been hoping to unveil plans for a new peace process as soon as early 2018.

特朗普已承諾要斡旋達成他所稱的「終極」協議,結束以巴衝突。以他的女婿賈里德•庫什納(Jared Kushner)為首的特朗普顧問們希望最快在2018年初公布啟動新和平進程的計劃。

A person with ties to Saudi officials said Mr Kushner had in recent months met Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman and Abu Dhabi』s crown prince Mohammed bin Zayed in an effort to formulate a new peace settlement. They discussed pushing the Palestinians into making deeper concessions, he said.

與沙特官員有聯繫的一名人士說,庫什納最近幾個月會晤了沙特王儲穆罕默德•本•薩勒曼(Mohammed bin Salman)和阿布扎比王儲穆罕默德•本•扎耶德(Mohammed bin Zayed),謀求擬定一套新的和平解決方案。他稱,他們討論了推動巴勒斯坦人作出更大讓步的問題。

However he added this had not been connected with the Jerusalem issue.

不過他補充說,這與耶路撒冷問題沒有關係。

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